London Underground 1992 Tube Stock (Central Line)

The 1992 Tube Stock (1992TS) was built for the Central Line in the early 1990s to replace ageing 1962 Tube Stock. As well as for the Central Line an order of stock was added for the Waterloo & City Line too, then still British Rail owned, as the Class 482. The 1992TS is based on the three 1986 Prototype Tube Stock trains which ran a series of trials in the late 1980s [1]. They were the first production tube stock fitted with solid state traction equipment [2].

Number built: 680 cars (8-car sets)
Built: 1991-94
Builder: BREL Derby / ABB Derby
Engine: 4 Brush LT130 traction motors per car (630v DC fourth rail)
Power: 1, 984 hp (1, 472 kW)
Formation: Driving Motor (DM)+Non Driving Motor (NDM)+NDM+NDM+NDM+NDM+NDM+DM

Eighty five eight-car sets were built for the Central Line making up six hundred and eighty cars in total, one hundred and seventy five being Driving Motors and the rest Non Driving Motors. Some NDMs are also fitted with de-icing equipment. The make-up of an eight-car formation can vary though DMs are always at the outer ends of course. The NDMs lack cabs but do have shunting controls accessible via an external cabinet.

The 1992TS has not been a trouble-free design for London Underground, despite the fact it was based on years of work with the prototype fleet there were a number of teething problems that delayed and hindered the entry into service. In 2003 a train of 1992TS derailed at Chancery Lane, after a traction motor became detached from one of the bogies following a sheered bolt, injuring thirty-two passengers [3][4]. The entire fleet was taken out of service (both Central and Waterloo & City fleets) for bolts to be checked and faulty ones replaced. In 2010-11 the bogies were replaced by a new design by Siemens [5]. However the 1992TS is the worst performing fleet on LU in terms of reliability and availability [6].

The 1992 Tube Stock fleet will be replaced as part of Deep Tube Upgrade in the next decade, under current plans the 92TS fleet will be replaced near the end of the 2020s or early in the 2030s [7]. To keep the fleet going until then the Central Line Improvement Programme (CLIP) will be carried out in the next few years by Bombardier. The upgrade includes replacing the DC traction system with a Mitrac AC system [8], on board computer, communication system and refreshing and updating the interior to make it RVAR compliant.
91325 at Ealing Broadway

91013 at Leytonstone

Aboard a DM

Departing Mile End heading West

91289 at White City

91101 arrives at East Acton
[1] John Glover, ABC London Underground (Ian Allan, 1997) p. 64
[2] Piers Connor, The London Underground Electric Train (Crowood Press, 2015)  p. 105
[3] "Thirty hurt after Tube crash" BBC News <>
[4] John Glover, London's Underground 12th Edition (Ian Allan, 2015) p. 76
[5] Connor p. 105
[6] Central Line Heavy Overhaul Programme Lift (TfL Paper) <>
[7] Kim Rennie, Underground and Overground Trains (Capital Transport, 2017) p. 19
[8] "Bombardier for Central Line retractioning", Modern Railways (October 2017) p. 83

Class 42 (BR Swindon Type 4 2,200hp Diesel-Hydraulic)

With electrification a distant dream (indeed still yet to be fully realised in 2018) British Rail's Western Region turned to continental style light weight diesel-hydraulic locomotives with fast-running engines in the 1950s to replace steam. The Class 42 was a licence-built version of German Federal Railway's V200 locomotive [1], modified to fit in the smaller British loading gauge. Two batches of locomotive were built, the Swindon built Maybach powered Class 42 and the North British Locomotives built MAN powered Class 43.

Number built: 38
Built: 1958-61
Builder: BR Swindon
Engine: 2 Bristol Siddeley Maybach MD650 diesels
Power: 2, 200 hp (1, 641 kW)
Wheel arrangement: B-B

The Class 42 was powered by two Maybach diesels built under licence by Bristol Siddeley. The first few locomotives were limited to 2,000hp due to limitations with the transmission though most of the class was rated at 2,200hp. One locomotive was fitted with a pair of Paxman 12YJXL diesels and was rated at 2,400hp. The Class 42 looked very similar to the V200 class though originally British Railways wanted it to look different, their designs were later used on the Class 52 [2].

The locomotives had a successful entry into service, Western Region found they could comfortably handle heavier trains than the Class 40. However there were problems with riding at high speeds which resulted in speed restrictions until bogie modifications could be carried out in 1960 [3]. Most of the class were named after Royal Navy ships and hence the nickname of the class became "Warships".

As with the other diesel-hydraulic designs the Class 42 was doomed once British Rail, in it's drive for standardisation and rationalisation, had sufficient diesel-electric motive power to take over their duties. Withdrawals began in 1968 and were completed by 1972 [4]. Two Class 42s have been preserved.
D832 Onslaught at Wirksworth

818 in BR blue (KD Collection)

D832 at Duffield

D832 brings a train into Wirksworth

[1] John Jennison & Tony Sheffield, Diesel Hydraulics of the 1960s and 1970s (Ian Allan, 2014) p. 4
[2] David Lawrence, British Rail Designed 1948-97 (Ian Allan, 2016) p. 107
[3] Brian Haresnape, Western Region Diesel-Hydraulics (Ian Allan, 1982) p. 28
[4] Pip Dunn, British Rail Main Line Locomotive Specification Guide (Crowood Press, 2013) p. 80

Class 172 Turbostar

The Class 172 is a member of the Turbostar family (such as the Classes 170 and 171). It is similar to the Class 170 but has diesel-mechanical transmission and a more austere interior to suit inner-suburban routes. They are also lighter due to a different bogie being used.

They were ordered for London Overground, Chiltern Railways and London Midland (now West Midlands Railway) [1] The London Overground sets are likely to be cascaded elsewhere once electrification of the Gospel Oak-Barking Line they operate on is completed. Chiltern 172s cannot be fitted with tripcocks (a safety system used by London Underground) unlike their other DMUs because of the bogies used which means they cannot operate on the Aylesbury via Amersham Line unless running with another so-equipped DMU.

Number built: 117 (39 2 or 3 car sets)
Built: 2010-11
Builder: Bombardier Derby
Engine: MTU 6H1800R83 diesel per vehicle
Power: 968hp (720kW) / 1, 449hp (1, 080kW)
Formation: Driving Motor Standard (DMS)+DMS or
DMS+Driving Motor Standard Lavatory (DMSL) or
DMSL+Motor Standard (MS)+DMS

It is in service with London Overground (Class 172/0), Chiltern Railways (Class 172/1) and West Midlands Railways (Class 172/2 and 172/3). The London Midland examples have end-gangways in the Electrostar style. The 172/3 are 3-car sets with the other sub-classes being 2-car.
Chiltern 172 104 at Princes Risborough

London Midland (as it was then) 172 331 at Worcester Shrub Hill

West Midlands Railway 172 339 at Birmingham Snow Hill 
LM 172 335 and 332 at Birmingham Moor Street

London Overground 172 008 at Gospel Oak

WMR 172 335 at Dorridge

[1] Colin J Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 162

Sheffield Supertram

The Supertram is a fleet of trams built for the Sheffield Supertram light rail network which began operations in 1994. At nearly thirty five metres long the Supertrams are one of the longest articulated vehicles built for public transport [1].

Number built: 25
Built: 1992
Builder: Siemens-Duewag
Engine: 4 Three-Phase Siemens traction motors (750v DC OHLE)
Power: 1, 114 hp (831 kW)

The trams were built at Siemens-Duewag and first tested on Düsseldorf's Rheinbahn network before being shipped over. The Supertrams consist of three articulated sections [2] and have all powered axles due to the gradients on part of the network.

The Supertrams underwent a full refurbishment in 2006-08 which included interior an exterior changes including the replacement of the original destination boards with LEDs to comply with the Disability Discrimination Act.
Supertram 102 at Cathedral

Supertram 119 at Meadowhall Interchange

Supertram 116 in Doncaster Sheffield Airport advertisement livery

Supertram 115 at Fitzalan Square

Another view of 116 in airport livery

Supertram 107 at Cathedral

[1] Supertram Vehicle Information <>
[2] Colin J. Marsden, Rail Guide 2016 (Ian Allan, 2016) p. 282

Class 09 (BR Darlington / English Electric 400hp Diesel-Electric)

A relatively tiny adjutant to the huge Class 08 shunter fleet, twenty six Class 09s were built for Southern Region. They were almost exactly the same as the 08 but had different gearing [1] to allow a top speed of 27.5 mp/h [2] (compared to the Class 08's 15 mp/h) and waist high air brake connections for working with Southern multiple-units. Because of this different gearing they have a lower tractive effort than the 08s.

Number built: 38 (including 12 conversions from Class 08)
Built: 1959-62
1992-93 (09/1 and 09/2 conversions)
Builder: BR Darlington & Horwich
09/1 and 09/2 conversions by RFS Kilnhurst
Engine: English Electric 6KT
Power: 400 hp (268 kW)
Wheel-arrangement: 0-6-0

In the early 1990s twelve more Class 09s were built from 08s to fulfil a need for faster shunters [3]. These later conversions, known as the 09/1 and 09/2, lack the high-level air brake connections (the original locomotives became 09/0). The main difference between the two later sub-classes is that the 09/1 has an 110v electrical equipment and the 09/2 90v.

Although the Class 09s spent most of their time on shunting duties there were the odd occasions they were used for passenger duties such as deputising for a Class 33 on Clapham Junction-Kensington Olympia services! The 09s originally were largely restricted to Southern Region but in the privatised era they can be found much wider afield. Ten have been preserved including one used as the National Railway Museum's yard shunter.
EWS liveried 09 001 at the Heritage Shunter Trust

D4100 at Kidderminster SVR

The National Railway Museum's 09 017

09 001 next to 03 099

Another view of 09 017

D4100 amid Class 50s

[1] Brian Haresnape, Diesel Shunters (Ian Allan, 1984) p. 71
[2] Colin J. Marsden, Traction Recognition (Second Edition) (Ian Allan, 2008) p. 12
[3] Colin J. Marsden, Diesel & Electric Locomotive Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2011) p. 90

City and South London Railway Locomotives

The City & South London Railway, which opened in 1890 between Stockwell and King William Street, was the first deep-level tube railway and the first major railway to use electric traction. To haul trains the C&SLR ordered a number of electric locomotives. The first two were built by Mather & Platt in 1889 in conjunction with Beyer Peacock [1] who provided the bodywork. The C&SLR ordered a production series of twelve others of a similar configuration. Later on more locomotives were built to augment the fleet from a variety of different manufacturers including the C&SLR itself though all followed the same design though with different equipment.

Number built: 52
Built: 1889-1901
Builder: Mather & Platt, Siemens, C&SL Stockwell Works,
Crompton & Company, Electric Construction Company, Thames Ironworks
Engine: 2 Edison-Hopkinson traction motors (500v DC third rail)
Power: 100 hp (75 kW)
Wheel arrangement: 4w

The C&SLR tunnel had a very limited diameter of just over three metres with a rolling stock gauge just over two metres wide. The C&SLR Locomotives were only three metres long. The locomotives has two electric motors controlled by a hand-operated rotary controller. The controller was originally mounted vertically with exposed electrical contacts but later a horizontal enclosed controller similar to those used on electric trams was used.

The C&SLR locomotives hauled trains of three passenger coaches. At each terminus the locomotive would be uncoupled and another locomotive following behind would be coupled to the other end to take the train back. The tiny locomotives struggled with fully loaded trains especially with the steep gradients and twisty tunnels at King William Street. Sometimes the locomotive would not make it and the driver had to back the train back down to the level part of the tunnel (under the Thames) and make another attempt! [4] When the C&SLR extended Northwards to Moorgate King William Street as closed in 1900, earning it the dubious honour of being the first tube station to close. Without the restrictions of King William Street the C&SLR could operate longer trains.

Later locomotives had four-pole motors, built-in air compressors (the earlier locomotives filled a reservoir at Stockwell for their brakes) and nose-suspended motors though the limited tunnel dimensions meant the external appearance of the locomotives did not change much. The C&SLR was closed for reconstruction in the early 1920s, the tunnels being widened to match other (and later) tube lines. This now allowed the C&SLR line (which became part of the Northern Line) to use Standard Stock. The C&SLR locomotives were withdrawn by 1925. One has been preserved.
Preserved C&SLR Locomotive #13 at London Transport Museum

Inside the cab of the preserved locomotive

C&SLR Locomotive and it's train, public domain image [2] 
Drawing of C&SLR train, public domain image [3]

[1] Piers Connor, The London Underground Electric Train (Crowood Press, 2015) p.10 
[2] "City & South London", The Street Railway Review Vol. 3 (1893) p. 590
[3] "London's Subterranean Electric Railway", The Electric Railway Gazette No.12 (December 1890) p. 231
[4] J.E. Connor, London's Disused Underground Stations (Capital Transport, 2012) p. 9

Class 144 Pacer (Walter Alexander / BREL Derby Local & Secondary Services 2 and 3-car)

The Class 144 Pacer was a follow-on from the Class 143. It shares an almost identical Walter Alexander built body to the 143 but with a chassis built by BREL Derby.

Number built: 56 (23 2 and 3-car sets)
Built: 1986-86
Builder: BREL Derby & Walter Alexander
Engine: Cummins LTA10-R diesel per car
Power: 450/675 hp (330/495 kW)
Formation: (2-car) Driving Motor Standard (DMS)+
Driving Motor Standard Lavatory (DMSL)
(3-car) DMS+Motor Standard (MS)+DMSL

The Class 144 was ordered for services in West Yorkshire [1]. To cope with an increase in passengers West Yorkshire PTE later ordered 10 extra Motor Standard trailers to augment ten trains to 3-cars. These are the only vehicles in the large Pacer fleet to have no driving cabs. The Class 144 was originally built with Leyland TL11 engines but these were later replaced by Cummins diesels. The original transmission has also been replaced with a Voith diesel-hydraulic system [2].

As with the rest of the Pacer fleet the Class 144s face withdrawal by 2020. One Class 144 has been modified as the Class 144e (for Evolution) to meet future accessibility standards with an accessible toilet and a new interior/seating [3] however no others have been modified to to 144e standard and replacement stock has instead been ordered. All are currently operated by Northern.
Northern 144 008 at Sheffield

Three car 144 020 at York

Northern 144 013 at Sheffield

Pacer front end comparison: Northern 142 023 and 144 020 at York

Northern 144 017 at Sheffield

[1] Brian Haresnape, Diesel Multiple Units: The Second Generation and DEMUs (Ian Allan, 1986) p. 78
[2] Colin J. Marsden, DMU and EMU Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2013) p. 127
[3] Colin J. Marsden, Rail Guide 2016 (Ian Allan, 2016) p. 91

LNER J45 (LNER Doncaster / English Electric or Brush 350hp Diesel-Electric)

All of the "Big 4" railway companies were experimenting with diesel shunters by the late 1930s and 1940s for economic and operational reasons. The LNER was the last to join the party with an order for four locomotives based on the LMS/EE design which led to the Class 08 (and would soon become very familiar indeed). The LNER J45 differed in cab design, had vacuum brakes and had a slightly longer wheel base [1]. The shunters were numbered 8000-8003 but within a couple of years were renumbered 15000-15003 by BR. Later they were given class names DES1, DEJ1, D3/9 and 3/10 but never received TOPS numbers.

Number built: 5
Built: 1944
(15004) 1947
Builder: LNER Doncaster
(15004) Brush
Engine: English Electric 6KT diesel
(15004) Brush Petter S54 diesel
Power: 350 hp (261 kW)
(15004) 360hp (268 kW)
Wheel arrangement: 0-6-0

A fifth shunter was built by Brush for the LNER to a similar design but with Brush equipment. 15004 (it was delivered after Nationalisation so received a BR number) had some external differences including the lack of a battery box on the side as it used compressed air to start the engine [2]. The shunter operated under trial for a couple of years before being accepted into BR service in 1949. It was given the original class name DES2, later DEJ2, D3/14 and 3/2.

The shunters were originally sent to work at Whitemoor yard though also could be seen working elsewhere [3]. LNER had planned to build one hundred and sixty seven more of these shunters (either with EE or Brush equipment) though Nationalisation put paid to these plans. The four original locomotives continued in BR service until 1967 when they were withdrawn. 15004, having a slightly less successful time with reliability and being a one-off, was withdrawn in 1962.
LNER liveried 8003 at Whitemoor in 1949 (KD Collection)

15004 at Whitemoor in 1949, note the lack of the battery box on the side (KD Collection)

[1] Brian Haresnape, Diesel Shunters (Ian Allan, 1984) p. 30
[2] Ibid. p. 31
[3] Colin J Marsden, Diesel & Electric Locomotive Recognition Guide (Ian Allan, 2011) p. 14